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Chapter 3015 Teaching and Enlightenment Teaching the Western Regions
The ancient sages governed the people, which was the way of the people. Just like Yu the Great walking on water, this is the way of water. Zaofu's method of riding a horse is also the way of horse. The cultivation of Houji is the way of the land. There must be a way. Where is the way in the Western Regions today? 』
Fei Qian looked around and said in a deep voice, "It's about etiquette and customs." 』
The etiquette of cannibalism.
This is the consensus of almost all Chinese people in later generations, but how many people will seriously understand how to eat it, or they just follow what others say. Anyway, if someone says so, they just follow it.
Ethics are indeed cannibals, but why can they be eaten for so many years? Shouldn’t we explore more and think more? Just like no one likes to be exploited, everyone criticizes capitalists, but are they really criticizing the nature of capitalists, or are they resenting themselves for not being capitalists?
Fei lurked in the Western Regions to carry out enlightenment.
Of course, Fei Qian cannot be the only one to achieve enlightenment. He also needs other people to help him achieve his goals. And this latest batch of civil servants who have arrived in the Western Regions are undoubtedly Fei Qian's best and only ones at the moment. Tool of.
Ethics are also tools. They are like a knife that can be used to suppress the people internally. It can also be turned into a spiritual shackles externally by turning the edge of the knife.
Zhou Gong’s system of rituals and music was an important beginning in establishing the humanistic spirit of ancient China, and his intentions were good. This is just like Confucius, Laozi, or Buddha. The initial moral teachings are all upward and good. Later, after the promotion of Confucius and the development of Xunzi, Zhou Gong's rites and music formed a huge system, which not only included the political system, but also included moral standards and codes of conduct.
During the Chinese feudal dynasty, why did Confucianism win in the end, defeating Buddhism, which was rampant for a while, and also suppressing Taoism, which had methods such as the Dragon and Tiger Pill?
When Fei Qian and Wen Li talked about the key points of education in the Western Regions, they also proposed the secret, which is "making rituals according to customs." That is to say, we should try our best to make use of the existing customs in the Western Regions in form and internal reasonable parts, then organize and improve them, and inject new things that belong to China. Only in this way can the people of the Western Regions enjoy hearing, seeing, and being transformed by them.
"So when you are an official, you should identify the creatures in the five lands..." Fei Qian said slowly, "However, the things in the five lands are definitely not rocks, which will not change for hundreds of years, and the people there are not copper and iron, which will change over time. constant. Just like in the Western Regions, there are mountains, forests, hills, rivers, and plains. How can there be one method that can overcome all methods, or a way that can last forever! Since it should change according to the place, the time, the people and the customs, only then can all the people be safe and sound according to the customs. 』
Etiquette is like this. It has penetrated into all aspects of life. In China, educational institutions have been set up in states, counties, townships, clans, and villages to dissolve Confucian ideals and ethics into various etiquettes, such as crown ceremonies, weddings, and meetings. Rituals, drinking rituals, shooting rituals, etc. enable people to receive the influence of rituals in rituals that they like to hear and see.
Taking the crown ceremony as an example, some later generations just thought it was fun, wore some Hanfu and imitated the ceremony of the crown ceremony, but did not really touch the essence of the crown ceremony...
Is the crowning ceremony really just about wearing a hat?
In ancient times, the crown ceremony actually represented "adulthood", and after adulthood, it was natural to have a home of one's own. The crown ceremony means independent separation of the family, or independent economic rights in some form. This is the actual expression behind the crown ceremony. Before, you could still depend on your parents, but after the ceremony, you have to go your own way and start making money to support the family!
This is completely different from the concept of just attending a ceremony and wearing a hat, and then turning around and asking your parents for money to make friends...
“In ancient China, there were Mao sacrifices, and now in the Western Regions, there are also living sacrifices, but they are not good practices. Fei Qian said slowly, "There is a saying in etiquette. Parrots can speak and are inseparable from birds. Orangutans can speak and are inseparable from beasts." It's rude to others. Although you can speak, you don't have the heart of an animal! Therefore, we should be polite to distinguish ourselves from animals. 』
"People from the Western Regions speak and act differently from people from China, and cannot communicate with each other. However, there is one thing that can be understood without words..." Fei Qian said with a smile, "Do you know what this is?" 』
Everyone started to think about it, and Xue Ping who was on the side seemed to have thought of something, but he didn't have much courage to say it directly until Fei Qian announced the answer.
性也. Fei Qian said slowly, "Joy, anger, sorrow, joy, greed, laziness and greed are all human nature, and they are the same as those of Han people." This kind of human nature is born with it, and the emotions of joy and anger are based on sex. When there are no external objects, what is hidden is not exposed, but when it is felt outside, the emotion is revealed. Therefore, likes and dislikes are nature. What you like and dislike are things. The heart is the sum total of all worries, power, and then you know the severity, and measure, and then you know the length. Everything is the same, but the mind is the same. Where the heart is, where the emotions are, where the nature is. 』
With no fixed intention, one waits for things and then acts, waits for pleasure before acting, and waits for habit before settling. ” Fei Qian said in a deep voice, “Within the four seas, their nature is the same. Their intentions are different, which is determined by teaching. Feelings of joy and anger may be insufficient or excessive, but they can be balanced with courtesy and restored to righteousness. In the land of the Western Region, what should be used for work, what should be done with pleasure, what habits should be determined, how to make up for deficiencies, and how to eliminate excesses, all should be discussed... These are three questions. 』
The first question is about the general direction, the second question is about specific measures, and the third question is somewhat similar to process management.
After three questions, everyone was in awe, and then felt their scalps were numb and their heads were numb.
Fei Qian obviously had no intention of asking these people to make decisions on the spot. Instead, he asked these people to go back with their questions and wait for three days before starting the class again.
The Western Region is a very large experimental field, and these people are like seeds. What kind of flowers will bloom? Fei Qian can only hope and guide, but cannot decide or replace.
The Rites of Zhou is a work that expresses the plan for governing the country through the official system and is extremely rich in content. The division of labor among the six officials in "The Rites of Zhou" is roughly as follows: the Heavenly Official is in charge of the palace, the Earth Official is in charge of civil affairs, the Spring Official is in charge of the clan, the Summer Official is in charge of the military, the Autumn Official is in charge of punishment, and the Winter Official is in charge of construction, which involves all aspects of social life. It is rare in ancient literature.
It is hard to imagine that at such an early time, Duke Zhou had already constructed a huge political official map, and then provided it for future generations to follow.
When Fei Qian first arrived in the Han Dynasty, he didn't think the book "Zhou Li" was anything special. But when he really read it carefully, he discovered that in fact, the system of etiquette recorded in "Zhou Li" was already It is very systematic. There are national ceremonies such as sacrifices, pilgrimages, feudal states, hunting tours, funerals, etc., as well as specific regulations such as the tripod system, the lexuan system, the chariot and riding system, the clothing system, the ritual and jade system, etc., as well as There are records of the grade, combination, shape, and measurement of various ritual vessels.
Due to various reasons, when "The Rites of Zhou" was first published, for unknown reasons, even some high-status Confucian scholars were hidden in the secret palace without being seen, and no one knows about it since then. It was not until the time when Emperor Cheng of the Han Dynasty that Liu Xiang and Xin and their sons collated the documents stored in the Secret House that this book was rediscovered and recorded...
So, Fei Qian has some malicious speculation...
Forget it, otherwise some people will chirp and express their dislike of conspiracy theories.
Even regardless of the subsequent story of this book, just discussing the content of "Zhou Rites" alone is enough to show the importance of the ritual system. If etiquette and law are the shell of etiquette, then etiquette and justice are the core of etiquette. The formulation of etiquette is based on the humanistic spirit, from form to spirit, from the outside to the inside. This is the most important role of etiquette. If it is just a ritual without reasonable ideological connotation as a basis, the ritual will become a soulless body.
If you want to penetrate the inner core of the people of the Western Regions and touch their spirit, you must find a better way in the early days of ethics.
Boring etiquette and cumbersome requirements cannot promote the promotion of etiquette in the Western Regions, and may even have the opposite effect. Therefore, just emphasizing etiquette norms is of no use. People from the Western Regions do not have the Chinese living environment, nor do they have the same cognition as the Chinese. If they told the Western Regions people that a gentleman is like a jade, they would probably laugh at the fact that the Chinese people are all fools for liking a few pieces of trash on the river beach. Stone…
Let his civil servants think and explore ways to solve the problem, but it does not mean that Fei Qian does not have a plan to solve the problem.
After Lu Yu, Xueping and others left, Fei Qian said to Jia Xu, "Education in the Western Regions should begin with music." 』
That’s right, Fei Qian’s method of preparing for enlightenment in the Western Regions started with music. Or "Entertainment Industry"?
Jia Xu handed over his hand and said, obviously he had expected it, "My lord is wise." Music represents the harmony of heaven and earth; ritual represents the order of heaven and earth. Because of harmony, all things are transformed, and because of order, all things are different. Nowadays, speech in the Western Regions is not smooth, but the method of vocal music can make use of strengths and avoid weaknesses, so that people in the Western Regions can understand the beauty and principles of China even if they cannot speak. 』
Fei Qian nodded, "First use sound to gather it, then use sound to make it prosperous, and then use music to make it reach its peak. It can be said that education is an auxiliary, and ritual and music complement each other." There is a saying in etiquette, "Happiness is made by heaven, etiquette is made by earth." This is the case. If there is no joy, it is not etiquette, and if there is no etiquette, it is not joy. When heaven and earth are in harmony, nothing can go wrong. Music does not mean Huang Zhong Da Lu or Xian Ge Qian Yang. The last part of music must pay attention to the common meaning and show virtue and integrity. 』
Chinese people like extreme behavior patterns, and I don’t know when they developed them. When they are good, everything is good, and when they are bad, everything is bad. A group of old masters criticized Mi Mi Zhi Yin, and then turned around and were beaten to a **** pulp by Mi Mi Zhi Yin.
When it comes to playing with acoustic music, China was actually ahead of the world in the early days, and it had high theoretical support as soon as it appeared.
In early Chinese music theory, sound, tone and music are concepts at three different levels.
The difference between sound and sound is that sound has rhythm and tone, while sound does not. Therefore, early Chinese music theory believed that ordinary sounds were basically called noise, and sounds with rhythm and rhythm were called sounds, and music generally refers to movements with connotations and representing a certain meaning. Humans, like insects and animals, have hearing and can perceive external sounds, but insects and animals can only reach the level of sound, while humans obviously have higher-level pursuits, so this is also one of the important signs that distinguish humans from animals. .
There is a saying in "Legends of Music", "Those who know the sound but don't know the sound are like beasts." "Although it may be a bit absolute, there is indeed a certain truth. Those who only pursue sensory stimulation are similar to animals, and humans... Of course, there are also those who only want sensory stimulation. After all, humans also have animal nature.
"People in the Western Regions also have musical instruments that can make music, but there is no music, let alone beautiful music," Fei Qian said slowly, "Emotions are in the heart and are expressed in words. Words are not enough, so I sigh at it. I sigh at the lack of it. Therefore, singing is not enough, so dancing with hands and dancing with feet is all right. Looking at the people in the Western Regions today, many of them dance with their hands and feet, and we can see that their singing is insufficient, and this is an opportunity that can be taken advantage of. 』
Not only people from the Western Regions, but also other people with little language and culture, such as the Xiqiang people, also like dancing.
Just like those who have some ink, when they see the desert, they will say "The sun sets over the long river", and when they feel the wind, they will say "the bamboo poles are falling into the sky", but for those who have no talent or have not studied much, I am afraid there are only two words left...
These people from the Western Regions sometimes hold their cow's tail high or dance their fur robes to express their mood with simple movements. They seem to be very happy, but in fact they are very pitiful because they can express their feelings. There are very few ways of emotion, too few.
This is the opportunity.
What if subtle guidance is added to this?
Just like those methods used by the later generations of Emperor Mi...
The Western Region is here, and the position is also here. If China does not occupy it, others will naturally come to occupy it.
Under the influence of external objects, the human heart will jump up.
Due to the different strengths of the effects of external objects, human emotions are expressed at different levels. Music comes from the human heart, but it can also become a new external object that exerts an influence on the human heart. This was clearly written in the book "Yue" in the early days of China, "Every sound is what inspires people's hearts." Emotions move in the heart, so they take shape in the sound. The sound is written, that is, the sound. 』
The Western Regions are almost blank in this aspect. So when the bald monk brought his magic weapon and started banging it, almost all the people from the Western Regions were attracted, and then unknowingly, they accepted the Buddhist teachings and developed faith.
Then if the bald monk is replaced, or the content is replaced...
There are many types of music, which can be dignified or wild, delicate or rough. Each of them can give people different feelings and induce the occurrence and transformation of people's emotions. Just like later classical music and rock music, although they both belong to the scope of music, they give the audience completely different feelings.
Some people like to listen to classical music, while others only like rock music. This difference is largely determined by the environment, and only a small part is due to nature.
Therefore, Fei Qian wanted to create a new Western Region environment and occupy the highlands that should have been occupied long ago, instead of watching bald heads or other heads occupying the territory that should belong to China in vain.
Is it easy for people in ancient times? Under the conditions of such simple and low productivity and such poor material supply, so many theories were prepared for future generations and so many methods were considered, but the descendants of China shelved them or even discarded them like worn-out shoes. .
After thinking about it, Fei Qian said to Jia Xu: "In the Western Region, sound is the main thing. In the wild, you can focus on strange sounds and treacherous sounds, but in the city, you should focus on elegant sounds and harmonious sounds. The people in the wild, tired from too much work, should have the sound of treachery to encourage them to move and encourage their strength, but the people in the city teach and learn, and they value elegance and harmony, and their voices are not chaotic. It is said that a gentleman is happy with his way, and a villain is happy with his desires. It is not necessary to talk about the ancient and the new, but only about the right. 』
Jia Xu nodded and said, "What the Lord said is true." The dispute between the ancient and the new is not conducive to teaching, but causes chaos. Sound music is basically like the way of teaching. Only by using sound to drive it and using sound to guide it can we discuss music. A straight voice is not enough to discuss music. Those who enjoy it should not speak contemptuously. Just as a person who can read a hundred words cannot write a beautiful article, a person who writes an article should not laugh at a person who can read a hundred words. 』
Fei Qian nodded, "Good." The fight between new and ancient music is like the fight between modern and ancient literature, both of which are undesirable. 』
The so-called ancient music refers to the elegant music that was passed down after the Yan, Huang, Yao and Shun periods, such as the Yellow Emperor's "Xianchi", Yao's music "Dazhang", Shun's music "Shao", Yu's music "Xia", etc. The rhythm is slow. Solemn and full of meaning. New music, on the other hand, was composed during the Warring States Period, represented by the sounds of Zheng and Wei, and tended to be complex in sounds and colors without any special meaning.
The struggle between new and ancient music is actually earlier than the struggle between modern and ancient texts. It existed in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, but the root cause of the struggle is still political issues. Because Chinese scholars believe that music and politics are connected and can be used as an indicator to judge the success or failure of politics.
"In the Book of Songs, there is no mention of Zheng and Wei who were so sloppy that they never recorded their writings, nor did they mention the sonorous songs of the Pre-Qin Dynasty that were afraid to record their songs," Fei Qian said in a deep voice, "The way of sound music is to observe its sounds and know its customs. You can know its master by observing its politics. The Duke of Zhou could adopt the style of Zhou Nan, but why couldn't the Han Dynasty adopt the style of the Western Regions? 』
Jia Xu nodded in agreement and added: "Exactly." The method of optimistic politics can be used in ancient and modern times. The king is the lord of all peoples. What the king likes will be followed by the same. If the country's utensils are used to overstep its control, it is enough to show the country's great luxury. If it is not measured, the country's destruction is not far away. There is an ancient saying that the decline of the Song Dynasty was regarded as a thousand bells. The decline of Qi is also the result of Da Lu. The decline of Chu is also the sound of witchcraft. There are many voices of sorrow in the countries in the Western Region, which shows that their masters have lost power and the people are displaced, so they can take advantage of this opportunity to take advantage of it. 』
Confucius once said that the quality of a country can be determined by what kind of music its citizens often listen to.
Of course, in ancient times, the only entertainment was music...
『Changing customs and changing customs is not good at music. Fei Qian said, "The southern Xiongnu's education can be divided into regions because the country is small. However, the Western Region is vast and the countries are messy, so a new method should be used." Use Buddha as a driving force to weaken their aspirations, use sound as a gathering force to eliminate barriers, use business as a bait to make them proud, use teaching as a way to advance, and trap their people..."
"Tai Shizi has an upright nature and cannot afford to be so trivial. Therefore, he only talks about the important things of the four peoples and the ways of agriculture and industry. He uses force to suppress injustice, eliminate treachery and chaos, and burn it like fire in the wild... And this art of enlightenment, The method of erosion..." Fei Qian looked at Jia Xu and said, "Only Wenhe can understand the essentials. If you know the secret, you can use literature to follow the rules, attract goodwill, eliminate hatred, and flow down like water... The method of civil and military, water and fire. The period of mutual aid is ten years, and it can be determined in ten years if it is too soon, or twenty-thirty if it is slow. The land in the Western Regions must all belong to China..."
(End of this chapter)